So today I am going to tell you about String Theory. This theory is very important in understanding the nature of subatomic particles as well as celestial bodies. That means this theory work in both quantum level and also define our universe. But String theory is the most controversial theory of all time and still, some physicists are still not able to digest it.
So what makes this theory important as well as controversial?
Before going directly into String Theory, you should have to know what are the reasons that this theory came into existence. And why other theories failed to describe the concept of the entire universe.
# Newtons law of Gravity-
First of all, Newton proposed a law of gravity. Which describes the working of our universe and motion of planets. This theory states that all the mass full objects possess the law of gravity. And because of that, all the planets are revolving around the sun. Or we can say that the gravitational force of the Sun is responsible for the movement of planets.
# And according to this theory the gravitational force is instantaneous. Means if the sun gets disappeared suddenly, the gravitational force on planets due to sun get disappears suddenly. It’s practically impossible because nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. And it takes 8 min and 20 seconds to light to reach the earth. That means we get to know about the disappearance of the sun only after 8 min and 20 seconds.
# Newton’s law of gravity works completely for the smaller objects. But at this point, it fails to solve the mystery of the universe. And can’t able to define the gravitational force at a bigger level.
# General Theory of relativity-
Then the theory of relativity came into existence. According to this theory, our space is like a plane rubber sheet and all the planets are placed into it, and the movement of planets depends on the deformation of this rubber sheet. That means if the Sun is placed at the centre of the sheet than all the planets are revolving around it following a curve path. And because of that, the light bends near the bigger celestial bodies.
# This theory solves much of the mystery of space and it is also used for prediction of states of planets. But at a quantum level, it doesn’t work out, because at a quantum level there are no directions and particles are present more than one place at a time. And all this phenomenon are not defined by the theory of relativity.
# And when the law of gravity and theory of relativity are unable to define the uncertain behaviour of subatomic particles, String theory came into existence. U
# When studying the quantum level we found that the quarks are the smallest particle present in the atom. But going deeper we get to know that quarks are made by the strings vibrating in a certain frequency. These strings are so small that they can’t be seen because the electromagnetic waves of light are larger than them. The length of these strings is equal to Plank’s length (10^-35 meter ).
# These strings vibrate and radiate energy of different frequencies. And these different types of frequencies form different types of element. According to this theory, strings are also capable of forming “graviton”, a particle responsible for gravity. These particles are found in every element of universe. By understanding the behaviour of elements using String Theory we are able to define the motion of the planets.
# This theory is controversial because these all phenomenon stated above is proved only theoretically. It’s impossible to prove string theory practically because we can’t do practicals with the strings we can’t see. And this theory also states that there is a particle which travels faster than the light named “Tachyon”.
# String theory is also controversial because it says that there are 10 dimensions present in nature but we can’t see them in our daily life. And it also proves that there is a massless particle present inside an atom.
How much this theory is true we don’t know, but this is the only theory we can have at present to solve the unseen mystery of nature.